Data Sources

Most relevant data sources are on this one page, so that you can use the search function of the browser to look for specific keywords. (Data for proxy calculations can be found on this Handbook page). The data sources that are provided here are a collection of sources that Metabolism of Cities has come across and gathered in the process of assisting the cities or carrying out their own assessments.

As mentioned in other places, it is recommended that data on the local situation is used to avoid data quality losses due to disaggregation or downscaling. The usual data providers for the various material flows and stocks are environmental agencies (national/local), public and private waste companies, transportation agencies (national/local), chamber of commerce, national/regional statistical office, national associations (in a specific field, for example, vegetable growers) and open data portals.

Tip 1: In general, there is also the Eurostat grid (see Handbook part on it) and the corresponding Eurostat library that you can check.

Tip 2: In the case, where there is no data available on the city level, it is possible to use the data of the Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA), which give tonnes of materials flows (per EW-MFA codes & indicators) at a national level. You can then downscale them using proxies (see Downscaling).

Tip 3: As a possible last resort, when you do not have local data and/or cannot find it here, is to get data where there is none or little through primary data collection or proxies from literature.

Extraction / Harvesting

MF1 Biomass: Crops

MF2 and 3: Mining / Metals


  • Industry association reports, for example, the furniture or textile industry
  • Production and industrial facilities data
  • Prodcom data, Production (and related trade) data.
    • Units: Value in EUR (Statistics on the production of manufactured goods Value ANNUAL 2019), Sold volume in kg (Statistics on the production of manufactured goods Sold Volume ANNUAL 2019), Total volume in kg (Statistics on the production of manufactured goods Total Volume ANNUAL 2019), Unit value (Statistics on the production of manufactured goods Unit Value ANNUAL 2019)
    • Data:
    • Scale: Only national level and EU27 etc.



Number of buildings

Imports and exports


Waste data should ideally really be local.